Understanding pollen–vegetation relationship is crucial for accurate land-cover and biodiversity reconstructions. Over the last few decades, there has been a significant increase in studying pollen production and dispersal, and pollen diversity in relation to plant diversity. In the scope of two projects, we gathered quite a large dataset of modern pollen and vegetation, which significantly enhanced our understanding of pollen productivity estimates in the landscape of Central Europe. We could then apply the quantitative techniques to reconstruct the postglacial landcover in many regions. We also combined our findings with data on pollen and vegetation diversity and used it for the past biodiversity reconstructions.